Deep studying accelerators reminiscent of GPUs, FPGAs, and more recently TPUs. A joint undertaking of England’s Manchester University, Ferranti Computer systems, and Plessey, Atlas comes online nine years after Manchester’s laptop lab begins exploring transistor expertise. Atlas was the quickest laptop on this planet on the time and launched the concept of virtual memory,” that is, using a disk or drum as an extension of foremost reminiscence. System management was provided via the Atlas Supervisor, which some consider to be the first true working system.